The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 14

14: Notes and Bibliography

Source Citations: An Overview

14.1 The purpose of source citations
Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require authors to identify the sources of direct quotations or paraphrases and of any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked (see 13.1–6). Conventions for citing sources vary according to scholarly discipline, the preferences of publishers and authors, and the needs of a particular work. Regardless of the convention being followed, source citations must always provide sufficient information either to lead readers directly to the sources consulted or, for materials that may not be readily available, to enable readers to positively identify them, regardless of whether the sources are published or unpublished or in printed or electronic form.

14.2 Chicago’s two systems of source citation
This chapter describes the first of Chicago’s two systems of source citation, which uses notes, whether footnotes or endnotes or both, usually together with a bibliography. The notes allow space for unusual types of sources as well as for commentary on the sources cited, making this system extremely flexible. Because of this flexibility, the notes and bibliography system is preferred by many writers in literature, history, and the arts. Chicago’s other system—which uses parenthetical author-date references and a corresponding reference list as described in chapter 15—is nearly identical in content but differs in form. The author-date system is preferred for many publications in the sciences and social sciences but may be adapted for any work, sometimes with the addition of footnotes or endnotes. For journals, the choice between systems is likely to have been made long ago; anyone writing for a journal should consult the specific journal’s instructions to authors (and see 14.3).

14.3 Other systems of source citation
Among other well-known systems are those of the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA), both of which use in-text citations (described in chapter 15), and that of the American Medical Association (AMA). The AMA uses a numbered list of references cited in the text by reference number; the text numbers appear as superior figures like note reference numbers. Guidelines and examples for these three systems are to be found in the manuals of those associations. Scientific Style and Format, published by the Council of Science Editors (CSE) in cooperation with the University of Chicago Press, also furnishes useful guidelines on both the author-date system and numbered references (see bibliog. 1.1 for these and other style manuals). Many journals and serials—including some of those published by the University of Chicago Press—either follow one of these styles or have their own styles, often based on or similar to the systems mentioned here and in 14.2. For legal and public documents, Chicago recommends The Bluebook, published by the Harvard Law Review Association; see 14.269–305.

14.4 Flexibility and consistency
As long as a consistent style is maintained within any one work, logical and defensible variations on the style illustrated in this chapter and in chapter 15 are acceptable if agreed to by author and publisher. Such flexibility, however, is rarely possible in journal publication, which calls for adherence to the established style of the journal in question. See also 14.3.

14.5 Citation management tools
It is rarely necessary to create a source citation from scratch; even most printed resources will be listed with library catalogs or other online resources. From there, it is easy enough to copy and paste relevant data or to extract them using a number of available tools. Citation management applications such as EndNote or Zotero allow users to build libraries of reference data based directly on their research. These data can be used to place notes or in-text references in a manuscript or to generate bibliographies or reference lists—all formatted according to any number of citation styles (including both of Chicago’s). The results, however, are only as good as the data that generate them and the software used to format them. A few caveats:

  • Double-check your data. As you build your library of source data, check each field against the actual source as soon as you acquire the data for it. Make sure authors’ names, titles of works, dates, and so forth are accurate and that they are entered in the appropriate fields. Check also for missing or redundant data. (It is okay, however, to collect more data than you will use in your citations.) You will need to do this whether you entered the data yourself or exported the citation from a library catalog or other resource.
  • Double-check your citations. Once a source citation has been inserted in your manuscript, make sure it is correctly formatted according to the recommendations in this chapter or chapter 15. Things to look for include errant punctuation or capitalization and missing or superfluous data. Enter corrections in the citation management application (or adjust its settings, as applicable) and double-check the results in the manuscript.
  • Make sure your citations are backed up. Some applications will let you back up your data automatically. It is usually a good idea also to keep local copies as a safeguard. Such backups are helpful not only for ongoing research but also in the event your manuscript must be resubmitted for any reason.

Citation management tools work best for citing recently published books and journal articles and other common publication formats. The variety of sources typically cited in a scholarly work, on the other hand, usually precludes an acceptable result from software alone. Authors are therefore strongly encouraged to review their citations for consistency, accuracy, and completeness before submitting their final manuscripts (editors, in turn, should be aware of how the software works in order to help identify any potential pitfalls). Note also that your publisher may require that such citations be presented as ordinary text, stripped of any of the underlying codes such as fields or hyperlinks used in creating or organizing them. Authors should double-check citations after this conversion to ordinary text and fix any problems both in the text and in the citation data; authors are also advised to save a backup copy of the penultimate version of the manuscript, with codes intact, in case the citations need to be regenerated for any reason. See also 2.22.

Sources Consulted Online

14.6 Electronic resource identifiers
Authors citing sources consulted online should generally include a uniform resource locator, or URL,1 as the final element in a citation that includes all the components described throughout this chapter and in chapter 15. A URL has the potential to lead readers directly to the source cited, and authors are encouraged to include them as part of their source citations (but see 14.11). Many journal publishers, especially in the sciences, create links to sources cited in their articles as a matter of course—a process that authors facilitate when they include electronic resource identifiers with their source citations. Book publishers, on the other hand, may require URLs only in citations of sources that may otherwise be difficult to locate. Authors are therefore advised to consult their publishers early in the publication process. The information in this section—together with the examples of URLs throughout this chapter—is intended to provide guidance for those authors and publishers who wish to include them as part of their research or publications or both. See also 14.7. For citing other types of electronic formats, see 14.159, 14.163, 14.263, 14.265.

14.7 Uniform resource locators (URLs)
A uniform resource locator, or URL—for example, http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/—is designed to lead a reader directly to an internet source. Note that it is never sufficient to provide only a URL; as far as they can be determined, the full facts of publication should always be recorded first. Readers should be able to judge the nature and authority of any source from the full facts of publication as detailed throughout this chapter and chapter 15. Moreover, the source to which a URL points is apt to move to a different location or to disappear altogether. For this reason, it is important to choose the version of the URL that is most likely to continue to point to the source cited. For DOIs, see 14.8. For other options, see 14.9, 14.10, 14.11. For URL syntax, see 14.17 and 14.18. For examples of URLs in source citations, see 14.23 (under “Journal Article”) and throughout this chapter and chapter 15.

14.8 Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)
One of a number of standards addressing the need for more reliable resource identifiers is that of the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).2 A DOI is a unique and permanent string assigned to a piece of intellectual property such as a journal article or book (or a component thereof), in any medium in which it is published. (The term “digital” refers to the identifier and not necessarily to the object.) A DOI forms a persistent URL starting with https://doi.org/ followed by a prefix (such as 10.1086) assigned by a DOI registration agency such as Crossref and then a suffix assigned by the publisher. For example, https://doi.org/10.1086/679716 identifies the article entitled “Scott’s Editing: History, Polyphony, Authority,” by Robert Mayer, published in the May 2015 issue of Modern Philology. This URL will, at a minimum, redirect the user to the latest version of a page with information that identifies the content and includes up-to-date information about its location or availability (from the publisher or other content owner). DOIs are often listed with a source in the form of “DOI:” followed by the prefix and suffix; in their source citations, authors should append this DOI to https://doi.org/ to form a URL as described above. (To find a DOI link or its target, the string starting with the prefix can be entered into the metadata search tool available from Crossref or the DOI resolver provided by the International DOI Foundation.) DOIs are an implementation of the Handle System, which also provides for URLs that begin with https://hdl.handle.net/ and function in much the same way as DOI-based URLs. Authors should prefer a DOI- or Handle-based URL whenever one is available. Examples are included throughout the section on journals (14.168–87) and at 14.161 and 14.234.

2. For more information about DOIs, consult the websites of the International DOI Foundation and Crossref.

14.9 Permalinks and the like
URLs are usually recorded by copying the version of the URL that appears with the source in a web browser’s address bar (or sometimes through a sharing option) as the current link for the reference. Some internet resources list another version of the URL along with the resource itself intended for citing or sharing the link. In the absence of a DOI or the like (see 14.8), these URLs—often labeled as persistent URLs, permalinks, stable URLs, or the like—should generally be preferred. As with any URL, they should be tested to make sure they lead where intended. When a URL points to a location that requires a subscription to a commercial database (e.g., through a library), it may be better to name the database instead (see 14.11).

14.10 Short forms for URLs
A very long URL—one that runs to as much as a line or more of text, especially if it contains a lot of punctuation or other syntax readable mainly by computers—can often be shortened simply by finding a better version of the link. If the source offers a DOI (see 14.8), use that; otherwise, determine whether a permalink or the like is available (see 14.9). If not, it is still often possible to find a better version of the URL, sometimes by relinking to the source using the available tools for navigation. For example, a search for the 1913 novel Pollyanna in the Google Books database may yield a URL that looks like this:

https://books.google.com/books?id=bF81AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA226#v=onepage&q&f=false

That URL, the result of a search for a specific passage, points to a corresponding page in the book (p. 226). The URL for the main page for the book looks like this (and should be preferred, assuming a page reference is included as part of the full citation):

https://books.google.com/books?id=bF81AAAAMAAJ

Alternatively, it is usually acceptable for such formally published resources simply to list the domain name (e.g., https://books.google.com/) or the name of the database (e.g., Google Books); interested readers should be able to search for and find the cited source based on the full facts of publication. On the other hand, shortened versions of a URL provided by third-party services (and intended primarily for use with social media) should never be used. Not only are such services prone to disappear, but the original URL identifies the domain name and other elements that may be important to the citation. Publishers, however, may choose to make an exception, especially for DOIs. (Short forms for DOIs are available through a service from the International DOI Foundation.)

14.11 Library and other bibliographic databases
For a source consulted via a library or other commercial bibliographic database and available only through a subscription or library account, it may be best to name the database in lieu of a URL. Even a URL recommended for such a source (see 14.9) may lead a nonsubscriber to a login page with no information about the source itself. If in doubt, test the URL while logged out of the library or database; a URL that leads to information about the source, if not full access to it, is safe to use. A URL based on a DOI, which will always direct readers to information about the source, if not full access to it, should be preferred where available (see 14.8). For more information and examples, see 14.161 (books), 14.175 (journals), 14.215 (theses and dissertations).

14.12 Access dates
An access date—that is, the self-reported date on which an author consulted a source—is of limited value: previous versions will often be unavailable to readers; authors typically consult a source any number of times over the course of days or months; and the accuracy of such dates, once recorded, cannot readily be verified by editors or publishers. Chicago does not therefore require access dates in its published citations of electronic sources unless no date of publication or revision can be determined from the source (see also 14.13). Because some publishers in some disciplines—in particular, research-intensive fields such as science and medicine—do require access dates, authors should check with their publishers early on, and it never hurts to record dates of access during research (citation management software will do this automatically). (Students may be required to include access dates in their papers.) For examples, see 14.176, 14.207, and 14.233. For access dates in author-date format, see 15.50.

14.13 “Last modified” and other revision dates
Some electronic documents will include a date on each page or screen indicating the last time the document was modified or revised. There are no accepted standards for this practice, and for formally published material the date of publication is generally more important. A revision date should be included, however, if it is presented as the de facto date of publication or is otherwise the only available date. Such dates may be particularly useful for citing wikis and other frequently updated works. For examples, see 14.207, 14.233, 14.234.

14.14 Authority and permanence
Much as they do for printed publications, authors must weigh the authority of any electronic sources they choose to cite. Electronic content presented without formal ties to a publisher or sponsoring body has the authority equivalent to that of unpublished or self-published material in other media. Moreover, such content is far more likely to change without notice—or disappear altogether—than formally published materials. On the other hand, self-published material from an authority on a given subject can usually be relied on. Authors should note that anything posted on the internet is “published” in the sense of copyright and must be treated as such for the purposes of complete citation and clearance of permissions, if relevant (see 4.2, 4.64–69).

14.15 Preserving a permanent record
As part of their research, and in addition to recording accurate and complete source citations as described throughout this chapter and chapter 15, authors are strongly encouraged to keep a copy of any source that is not formally published, as a hedge against potential challenges to the research or data before, during, or after publication. Such a source might include a post on a social-networking site or app, a page from the website of a banking institution, or a version of an article on a news site reporting an ongoing crisis—any source that may be difficult to track down at a later date in exactly the form in which it was consulted. (Examples of sources that would not be subject to this recommendation would include an article in a journal or a magazine or any book cataloged by the Library of Congress or other national registry.) Copies may be kept in the form of printouts or as digital files (e.g., as PDFs or screen captures), or by means of a permanent link creation service such as Perma.cc.

14.16 Publications available in more than one medium
In many cases the contents of the print and electronic forms of the same publication are intended to be identical. Moreover, publishers are encouraged to note explicitly any differences between the two (see 1.78). In practice, because there is always the potential for differences, intentional or otherwise, authors should cite the version consulted. Chicago recommends including a URL to indicate that a work was consulted online. For practical purposes, alternate electronic formats offered by a single publisher from the same URL—for example, PDF and HTML versions of the journal article mentioned in 14.8—do not need to be indicated in the citation. Moreover, a DOI-based URL technically points to each medium in which a work is published. (Though a print source may list a DOI, authors need not record it as part of their research unless their publisher or discipline requires it.) For items designed to be read apart from any website, the application, format, device, or medium should be specified, depending on what might be required to consult a particular version. See also 14.6.

14.17 URLs and other such elements in relation to surrounding text
URLs, email addresses, and the like are unique strings that contain no spaces. URLs should be presented in full, beginning with the protocol (usually http, for hypertext transfer protocol, or https, a version of the protocol that adds support for enhanced security mechanisms). Even if it follows a period, the first letter of the protocol (e.g., the h in http) is not capitalized. (In running text, avoid beginning a sentence with a URL.) The capitalization of the remaining components varies; because some resource identifiers are case sensitive, they should not be edited for style. A “trailing slash” (/), the last character in a URL pointing to a directory, is part of the URL. Other punctuation marks that follow a URL or other such identifier will readily be perceived as belonging to the surrounding text; sentences or citations that include a URL or the like should therefore be punctuated normally. Though angle brackets or other “wrappers” are standard with email addresses or URLs in some applications, these are unnecessary in the context of notes and bibliographies or in running text (see also 6.8).

14.18 URLs and line breaks
In a printed work, if a URL has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. Such breaks help to signal that the URL has been carried over to the next line. A hyphen should never be added to a URL to denote a line break, nor should a hyphen that is part of a URL appear at the end of a line. If a particularly long element must be broken to avoid a seriously loose or tight line, it can be broken between words or syllables according to the guidelines for word division offered in 7.36–47. Editors, proofreaders, and compositors should use their discretion in applying these recommendations, aiming for a balance between readability and aesthetics.

http://press-pubs.uchicago
.edu/founders/

http://www.jstor.org/stable
/2921689

http://www.themillions.com/2015/04/to-fall-in
-love-with-a-reader-do-this.html

http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171
,920400,00.html

http://www.scien
tificstyleandformat.org/

It is generally unnecessary to specify breaks for URLs in electronic publication formats with reflowable text, and authors should avoid forcing them to break in their manuscripts (see 2.13).

Basic Format, with Examples and Variations

14.19 Notes and bibliography—an overview
In the system favored by many writers in the humanities, bibliographic citations are provided in notes, preferably supplemented by a bibliography. The notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, are usually numbered and correspond to superscript note reference numbers in the text (but see 14.53); in electronic formats, notes and note numbers are usually linked. Notes are styled much like running text, with authors’ names in normal order and the elements separated by commas or parentheses.

Advertisements

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 13

13: Quotations and Dialogue

Overview

13.1Scope of this chapter—and where else to look
13.2Quotations and modern scholarship
13.3Giving credit and seeking permission
13.4When to paraphrase rather than quote
13.5When quotation and attribution is unnecessary
13.6Ensuring accuracy of quotations

Permissible Changes to Quotations

13.7Permissible changes to punctuation, capitalization, and spelling
13.8Permissible changes to typography and layout

Quotations in Relation to Text

Run In or Set Off

13.9Run-in and block quotations defined
13.10Choosing between run-in and block quotations

Assimilation into the Surrounding Text

13.11Logical and grammatical assimilation of quoted text
13.12Integrating tenses and pronouns from quoted text

Quotations and Punctuation

13.13Punctuation relative to closing quotation marks
13.14Comma to introduce a quotation
13.15No comma to introduce a quotation
13.16Colon to introduce a quotation
13.17Period rather than colon to introduce a block quotation

Initial Capital or Lowercase Letter

13.18Changing capitalization to suit syntax—an overview
13.19Initial capital or lowercase—run-in quotations
13.20Initial capital or lowercase—block quotations
13.21Brackets to indicate a change in capitalization

Block Quotations

13.22Block quotations of more than one paragraph
13.23Block quotations beginning in text
13.24Text following a block quotation or extract

Poetry Extracts

13.25Setting off poetry
13.26Uniform indents for poetry
13.27Long lines and runovers in poetry
13.28Quotation marks in poems
13.29Run-in poetry quotations

Quotation Marks

Double or Single Quotation Marks

13.30Quotations and “quotes within quotes”
13.31Quotation marks in block quotations

Quotations of More than One Paragraph

13.32Quotation marks across paragraphs
13.33Quotations within quotations across paragraphs
13.34Quoting more than one stanza of poetry
13.35Quoting letters in their entirety

Quotation Marks Omitted

13.36Epigraphs
13.37Decorative initials (“drop caps” and raised initials)
13.38Maxims, questions, and the like

Speech, Dialogue, and Conversation

13.39Direct discourse
13.40Single-word speech
13.41Faltering speech or incomplete thoughts
13.42Alternatives to quotation marks
13.43Unspoken discourse
13.44Numerals in direct discourse
13.45Indirect discourse

Drama, Discussions and Interviews, and Field Notes

13.46Drama
13.47Shared lines and runover lines in verse drama
13.48Discussions and interviews
13.49Case studies and ethnographic field notes

Ellipses

13.50Ellipses defined
13.51Danger of skewing meaning with ellipses
13.52When not to use an ellipsis
13.53Ellipses with periods
13.54Ellipses with other punctuation
13.55Ellipses at the ends of deliberately incomplete sentences
13.56Ellipses for the omission of whole or partial paragraphs
13.57Ellipses in poetry and verse drama
13.58Bracketed ellipses

Interpolations and Clarifications

13.59Missing or illegible words
13.60Bracketed clarifications
13.61“Sic”
13.62“Italics added”
13.63Interpolations requiring quotation marks

Attributing Quotations in Text

13.64Use of parentheses with in-text citations
13.65Full in-text citation
13.66Shortened citations or “ibid.” with subsequent in-text citations
13.67Frequent reference to a single source cited in a note

Sources Following Run-In Quotations

13.68Punctuation following source of run-in quotation
13.69Punctuation preceding source of run-in quotation

Sources Following Block Quotations and Poetry Extracts

13.70Parenthetical source following a block quotation
13.71Parenthetical citations with poetry extracts
13.72Shortened references to poetry extracts

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 12

12: Mathematics in Type

Overview

12.1Additional resources for math
12.2Tools for math

Style of Mathematical Expressions

General Usage

12.3Standards for mathematical copy
12.4Consistency of mathematical notation
12.5Words versus mathematical symbols in text
12.6Concise mathematical expression
12.7Sentence beginning with a mathematical symbol
12.8Adjacent mathematical symbols

Signs and Symbols

12.9Mathematical characters
12.10Diacritical and other marks in mathematical notation
12.11Italic letters and kerning in mathematical expressions
12.12Letters and fonts in mathematical notation
12.13List of unusual mathematical characters
12.14Special mathematical symbols
12.15Signs for binary operations and relations
12.16Basic spacing in mathematics
12.17Mathematical functions

Punctuation

12.18Mathematical expressions and punctuation
12.19Elided lists in mathematical expressions
12.20Elided operations and relations

Mathematical Expressions in Display

12.21Displaying mathematical expressions
12.22Qualifying clauses for displayed mathematical expressions
12.23Breaking displayed mathematical expressions

Numeration

12.24Numbering displayed mathematical expressions
12.25Methods of numeration for mathematical expressions

Delimiters

12.26Common delimiters in mathematics
12.27Functional notation
12.28Set notation
12.29Ordered set notation
12.30Interval notation
12.31Delimiters denoting inner product
12.32Binomial coefficients
12.33Vertical bars in mathematical notation
12.34A single vertical bar in mathematical notation
12.35Cases in mathematical expressions

Subscripts and Superscripts

12.36Simple mathematical subscripts and superscripts
12.37Complex mathematical subscripts and superscripts
12.38Alignment of mathematical subscripts and superscripts

Summations and Integrals

12.39Summation sign
12.40Product sign
12.41Integral sign
12.42Spacing around differentials

Radicals

12.43Radical signs
12.44Radical signs in text

Fractions

12.45Fractions in text
12.46Fractions in display
12.47Fractions in subscripts and superscripts
12.48Multiple and multilevel fractions
12.49Rewriting fractions using exponents

Matrices and Determinants

12.50Matrices
12.51Determinants

Scalars, Vectors, and Tensors

12.52Scalars, vectors, and tensors defined
12.53Vector and tensor multiplication
12.54Additional tensor notation
12.55Dirac notation

Definitions, Theorems, and Other Formal Statements

12.56Formal mathematical statements in text

Probability and Statistics

12.57Probability and statistics—additional resources
12.58Probability
12.59Means and standard deviations
12.60Uncertainties

Preparation and Editing of Paper Manuscripts

12.61Format of paper manuscripts for mathematics
12.62Setting mathematics from the author’s hard copy
12.63Marking italic type for mathematics
12.64Marking common mathematical abbreviations
12.65Marking single mathematical letters in other type styles
12.66Mathematical fonts to mark on a paper manuscript
12.67Marking mathematical subscripts and superscripts
12.68Examples of marked mathematical copy

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 11

11: Languages Other than English

Overview

11.1Scope and organization
11.2Unicode

General Principles

Words and Phrases from Other Languages

11.3Non-English words and phrases in an English context
11.4Non-English proper nouns in an English context
11.5Translations of terms from other languages

Titles of Works from Other Languages

11.6Capitalization of titles from other languages
11.7Punctuation of titles from other languages
11.8Italic versus roman type for titles from other languages
11.9Non-English titles with English translation
11.10Original-language title of work versus translation

Quotations from Other Languages

11.11Typographic style of quotations from other languages
11.12Translations relative to quotations
11.13Source of quotation plus translation
11.14Crediting the translation of a quoted passage
11.15Adjusting translated quotations
11.16Editing translated quotations
11.17The sin of retranslation

Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

11.18Capitalization—English versus other languages
11.19Punctuation—original language versus English context
11.20Word division for languages other than English
11.21Special characters in the Latin alphabet
11.22International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

African Languages

11.23African capitalization and punctuation
11.24African special characters

French

11.25French—additional resources
11.26French capitalization
11.27Titles of French works
11.28Spacing with French punctuation
11.29French use of guillemets
11.30Quotation marks in French
11.31French dialogue
11.32French ellipses
11.33French word division—vowels
11.34French word division—consonants
11.35French words containing apostrophes
11.36French words best left undivided
11.37French accents and ligatures

German

11.38The new German orthography
11.39German capitalization
11.40German apostrophes
11.41German quotation marks
11.42German word division—vowels
11.43German word division—consonants
11.44German word division—compounds
11.45German special characters

Italian

11.46Italian capitalization
11.47Italian quotations and dialogue
11.48Italian apostrophes
11.49Italian ellipses
11.50Italian word division—vowels
11.51Italian word division—consonants
11.52Italian word division—words containing apostrophes
11.53Italian special characters

Latin

11.54Latin capitalization—titles of works
11.55Latin word division—syllables
11.56Latin word division—single consonants
11.57Latin word division—multiple consonants
11.58Latin word division—compounds
11.59Latin special characters

Spanish

11.60Spanish—additional resources
11.61Spanish capitalization
11.62Spanish question marks and exclamation points
11.63Spanish guillemets and quotation marks
11.64Spanish dialogue
11.65Spanish ellipses
11.66Spanish word division—vowels
11.67Spanish word division—consonants
11.68Dividing Spanish compounds
11.69Spanish special characters

Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

11.70Special considerations for other languages using the Latin alphabet

Languages Usually Transliterated (or Romanized)

11.71 Transliteration
In nonspecialized works it is customary to transliterate—that is, convert to the Latin alphabet, or romanize—words or phrases from languages that do not use the Latin alphabet. For discussion and illustration of scores of alphabets, see Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, eds., The World’s Writing Systems (bibliog. 5). For alphabetic conversion, the most comprehensive resource is the Library of Congress publication ALA-LC Romanization Tables(bibliog. 5), available online. Do not attempt to transliterate from a language unfamiliar to you. Note that the recommendations elsewhere in this chapter related to capitalization (11.18), punctuation (11.19), and word division (11.20) for languages that use the Latin alphabet apply equally to transliterated text.

11.72 Character sets for non-Latin alphabets
Modern word-processing software readily allows users to enter words in a number of non-Latin alphabets. For a given alphabet, there may be a variety of non-Unicode character sets available as specialized fonts, but authors who want to include such copy should generally opt for a font that includes the correct Unicode characters if at all possible (see 11.2), after consulting their publisher. See also 2.16.

11.73 Proofreading copy in non-Latin alphabets—a warning
Anyone unfamiliar with a language that uses a non-Latin alphabet should exercise extreme caution in proofreading even single words set in that alphabet. Grave errors can occur when similar characters are mistaken for each other. If in doubt, editors should query the author; it may be advisable to consult the Unicode number and description (see 11.2) when referring to a given character or diacritical mark.

11.74 Diacritics—specialized versus general contexts
Nearly all systems of transliteration require diacritics—including, in the languages discussed below, macrons, underdots, and overdots, to name just a few. Except in linguistic studies or other highly specialized works, a system using as few diacritics as are needed to aid pronunciation is easier on readers, publisher, and author. Most readers of a nonspecialized work on Hindu mythology, for example, will be more comfortable with Shiva than Śiva or with Vishnu than Viṣṇu, though many specialists would want to differentiate the Sh in Shiva from the sh in Vishnu as distinct Sanskrit letters. For nonspecialized works, the transliterated forms without diacritics that are listed in the latest editions of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries (bibliog. 3.1) are usually preferred by readers and authors alike.

11.75 Italics versus roman for transliterated terms
Transliterated terms (other than proper names) that have not become part of the English language are italicized. If used throughout a work, a transliterated term may be italicized on first appearance and then set in roman. Words listed in the dictionary are usually set in roman. See also 11.3–5.

Arabic

11.76Arabic transliteration
11.77The hamza and the ʿayn
11.78Arabic spelling
11.79The Arabic definite article
11.80Arabic capitalization
11.81Arabic word division

Chinese and Japanese

11.82 Chinese romanization
The Hanyu Pinyin romanization system, introduced in the 1950s, has largely supplanted both the Wade-Giles system and the place-name spellings of the Postal Atlas of China (last updated in the 1930s), making Pinyin the standard system for romanizing Chinese. Representing sounds of Chinese more explicitly, Pinyin has been widely accepted as the system for teaching Chinese as a second language. As of 2000, the Library of Congress issued new romanization guidelines reflecting the conversion of its entire online catalog records for the Chinese collection to comply with Pinyin. Although a few authors, long familiar with Wade-Giles or other older systems (or Tongyong Pinyin, a more recent system still used by some in Taiwan), have not switched to Pinyin in their writings, Chicago joins librarians in urging that Pinyin now be used in all writing about China or the Chinese language. (In some contexts it may be helpful to the reader to add the Wade-Giles spelling of a name or term in parentheses following the first use of the Pinyin spelling.) The ALA-LC Romanization Tables (bibliog. 5) available online from the Library of Congress should be used with caution by anyone unfamiliar with Chinese.

11.83 Exceptions to Pinyin
Even where Pinyin is adopted, certain place-names, personal names, and other proper nouns long familiar in their older forms may be presented that way in English texts. Or, for greater consistency, the old spelling may be added in parentheses after the Pinyin version. If in doubt, consult the latest edition of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (bibliog. 3.1); names not listed there in older forms should be presented in Pinyin. Editors who wish to alter spellings should do so in consultation with the author.

11.84 Apostrophes, hyphens, and tone marks in Chinese romanization
Pinyin spellings often differ markedly from Wade-Giles and other older spellings. Personal names are usually spelled without apostrophes or hyphens, but an apostrophe is sometimes used when syllables are run together (as in Xi’an to distinguish it from Xian), even in contexts where tone marks are used (e.g., Xī’ān). The Pinyin romanization system of the Library of Congress does not include tone marks, nor are they included in many English-language publications. However, tone marks may be appropriate in certain contexts (e.g., textbooks for learning Chinese).

11.85 Some common Chinese names
Some names frequently encountered are listed below.

The names Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek, among a few others, usually retain the old spellings.

11.86 Japanese romanization
The Japanese language in its usual written form is a mixture of Chinese characters (called kanji in Japanese) and two kana syllabaries. (A syllabary is a series of written characters, each used to represent a syllable.) Since romanized Japanese, rōmaji, was introduced into Japan in the sixteenth century, a number of systems of romanization have been developed. The one in most common use since the early part of the Meiji period (1868–1912) is the modified Hepburn (or hyōjun) system. This system is used in Kenkyūsha’s New Japanese–English Dictionary (bibliog. 3.2) and most other Japanese–English dictionaries (and is the basis of the Japanese romanization tables available online from the Library of Congress); outside Japan, it is also used almost exclusively, notably in Asian collections in libraries throughout the world.

11.87 Modified Hepburn system
In the modified Hepburn system, an apostrophe is placed after a syllabic that is followed by a vowel or yGen’eSan’yo. A macron is used over a long vowel (usually an o or a u, though some systems allow for macrons over ai, and e) in all Japanese words except well-known place-names (e.g., Tokyo, Hokkaido, Kobe) and words such as shogun and daimyo that have entered the English language and are thus not italicized. (When the pronunciation of such names or words is important to readers, however, macrons may be used: Tōkyō, Hokkaidō, Kōbe, shōgun, daimyō.) Hyphens should be used sparingly: Meiji jidai-shi (or jidaishino shinkenkyū. Shinjuku-ku (or Shinjukukuno meisho.

11.88 Chinese and Japanese—capitalization and italics
Although capital letters do not exist in Japanese or Chinese, they are introduced in romanized versions of these languages where they would normally be used in English (see chapter 8). Personal names and place-names are capitalized. In hyphenated names, only the first element is capitalized in romanized Chinese, though both elements may be capitalized in Japanese. Common nouns and other words used in an English sentence are lowercased and italicized (see 11.311.5). Names of institutions, schools of thought, religions, and so forth are capitalized if set in roman, lowercased if set in italics.

11.89 Titles of Japanese and Chinese works
As in English, titles of books and periodicals are italicized, and titles of articles are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks (see 8.156–201). The first word of a romanized title is always capitalized, as are many proper nouns (especially in Japanese).

11.90 Inclusion of Chinese and Japanese characters
Chinese and Japanese characters, immediately following the romanized version of the item they represent, are sometimes necessary to help readers identify references cited or terms used. They are largely confined to bibliographies and glossaries. Where needed in running text, they may be enclosed in parentheses. The advent of Unicode has made it easier for authors to include words in non-Latin alphabets in their manuscripts, but publishers need to be alerted of the need for special characters in case particular fonts are needed for publication (see 11.2).

Hebrew

11.91Hebrew transliteration systems
11.92Diacritics in transliterated Hebrew
11.93Hebrew prefixes
11.94Hebrew capitalization and italics
11.95Hebrew word division
11.96Unromanized Hebrew phrases
11.97A note on Hebrew vowels

Russian

11.98Russian transliteration
11.99Russian capitalization
11.100Titles of Russian works
11.101Russian quotations and dialogue
11.102Russian ellipses
11.103Russian uses of the dash
11.104Russian word division—general
11.105Combinations not to be divided in Cyrillic transliteration
11.106Division between Russian consonants
11.107Division of Russian words after prefixes or between parts
11.108Division of Russian words after vowel or diphthong

South Asian Languages

11.109South Asian special characters

Classical Greek

11.110Transliterating Greek
11.111Typesetting Greek

Breathings and Accents

11.112Greek breathing marks
11.113Greek accent marks
11.114Unaccented Greek words
11.115Greek vowels

Punctuation and Numbers

11.116Greek punctuation
11.117Greek numbers

Word Division

11.118Greek word division—consecutive vowels
11.119Greek word division—single consonants
11.120Greek word division—two or more consonants
11.121Greek word division—compounds

Old English and Middle English

11.122Special characters in Old and Middle English
11.123Ampersand and wynn
11.124Old English vowels

American Sign Language (ASL)

11.125Signed languages
11.126Components of signs
11.127Writing ASL
11.128Glosses in ASL
11.129Compound signs
11.130Fingerspelling
11.131Lexicalized signs
11.132Handshapes
11.133Transcriptions of signed sentences
11.134Pronouns, possessives, and reference
11.135Nonmanual signals

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 10

10: Abbreviations

Overview

10.1Abbreviations—additional resources
10.2Acronyms, initialisms, contractions
10.3When to use abbreviations
10.4Periods with abbreviations
10.5Abbreviations and spaces
10.6Capitals versus lowercase for acronyms and initialisms
10.7Italic versus roman type for abbreviations
10.8Small versus full-size capitals for acronyms and initialisms
10.9“A,” “an,” or “the” preceding an abbreviation
10.10Abbreviations containing ampersands

Names and Titles

Personal Names, Titles, and Degrees

10.11Abbreviations for personal names
10.12Initials in personal names
10.13Abbreviating titles before names
10.14Abbreviations for civil titles
10.15Abbreviations for military titles
10.16Abbreviations for social titles
10.17Abbreviations for French social titles
10.18Abbreviations for “Reverend” and “Honorable”
10.19Abbreviations for “Junior,” “Senior,” and the like
10.20Abbreviations for the names of saints
10.21Abbreviations for academic degrees
10.22Abbreviations for professional, religious, and other designations

Companies and Other Organizations

10.23Commonly used generic abbreviations for firms and companies
10.24Abbreviations and ampersands in company names
10.25Abbreviations for media companies
10.26Abbreviations for associations and the like

Geographical Terms

10.27Abbreviations for US states and territories
10.28Abbreviations for Canadian provinces and territories
10.29Comma with city plus state abbreviation
10.30Abbreviations for place-names with “Fort,” “Mount,” and “Saint”

Names of Countries

10.31Abbreviating country names
10.32“US” versus “United States”

Addresses

10.33Mailing addresses—postal versus standard abbreviations
10.34Abbreviations for compass points in mailing addresses

Compass Points, Latitude, and Longitude

10.35Abbreviations for compass points
10.36Abbreviations for “latitude” and “longitude”

Designations of Time

10.37Other discussions related to time
10.38Abbreviations for chronological eras
10.39Abbreviations for months
10.40Abbreviations for days of the week
10.41Abbreviations for time of day

Scholarly Abbreviations

10.42Scholarly abbreviations
10.43A few scholarly symbols

Biblical Abbreviations

10.44Biblical abbreviations—an overview
10.45Abbreviations for the Old Testament
10.46Abbreviations for the Apocrypha
10.47Abbreviations for the New Testament
10.48Abbreviations for versions and sections of the Bible

Technology and Science

10.49Miscellaneous technical abbreviations
10.50Statistical abbreviations

The International System of Units

10.51SI units—overview
10.52SI units—form
10.53Plurals for SI units
10.54SI base units
10.55Kilogram versus gram as SI base unit
10.56SI prefixes
10.57Units derived from SI base units
10.58SI units and abbreviations—spacing
10.59Non-SI units accepted for use

Astronomy

10.60Astronomical abbreviations—additional resources
10.61Celestial coordinates
10.62Some other astronomical abbreviations

Chemical Elements

10.63Naming conventions for chemical elements

US Measure

10.64Periods with abbreviations of US measure
10.65Plural forms for abbreviations of US measure
10.66US abbreviations for length, area, and volume
10.67US abbreviations for weight and capacity
10.68US and general abbreviations for time

Business and Commerce

10.69Commercial abbreviations—some examples

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 9

9: Numbers

Overview

9.1Overview and additional resources

Numerals versus Words

General Principles

9.2Chicago’s general rule—zero through one hundred
9.3An alternative rule—zero through nine
9.4Hundreds, thousands, and hundred thousands
9.5Number beginning a sentence
9.6Ordinals
9.7Consistency and flexibility

Large Numbers

9.8Millions, billions, and so forth
9.9Powers of ten
9.10“Mega-,” “giga-,” “tera-,” and so forth
9.11Binary systems
9.12Use of “dex”

Physical Quantities

9.13Physical quantities in general contexts
9.14Simple fractions
9.15Whole numbers plus fractions
9.16Numbers with abbreviations and symbols
9.17Units for repeated quantities

Percentages and Decimal Fractions

9.18Percentages
9.19Decimal fractions and use of the zero

Money

9.20Words versus monetary symbols and numerals
9.21Non-US currencies using the dollar symbol
9.22British currency
9.23Other currencies
9.24Large monetary amounts
9.25Currency with dates

Numbered Divisions in Publications and Other Documents

9.26Page numbers, chapter numbers, and so forth
9.27Volume, issue, and page numbers for periodicals
9.28Numbered divisions in legal instruments

Dates

9.29The year used alone
9.30The year abbreviated
9.31Month and day
9.32Centuries
9.33Decades
9.34Eras
9.35All-numeral dates and other brief forms
9.36ISO style for dates

Time of Day

9.37Numerals versus words for time of day
9.38Noon and midnight
9.39The twenty-four-hour system
9.40ISO style for time of day

Numbers with Proper Names and Titles

9.41Numerals for monarchs, popes, and so forth
9.42Numerals with personal names
9.43Numbers for sequels
9.44Vehicle and vessel numbers
9.45Numbers for successive governments
9.46Numbered political and judicial divisions
9.47Numbered military units
9.48Numbered places of worship
9.49Unions and lodges

Addresses and Thoroughfares

9.50Numbered highways
9.51Numbered streets
9.52Building and apartment numbers

Plurals and Punctuation of Numbers

9.53Plural numbers
9.54Comma between digits
9.55The decimal marker
9.56Space between digits (SI number style)
9.57Telephone numbers
9.58Ratios
9.59Numbered lists and outline style

Inclusive Numbers

9.60The en dash for inclusive numbers
9.61Abbreviating, or condensing, inclusive numbers
9.62Alternative systems for inclusive numbers
9.63Inclusive numbers with commas
9.64Inclusive years

Roman Numerals

9.65Roman numerals—general principles
9.66The advent of subtrahends (back counters)
9.67Chicago’s preference for arabic rather than roman numerals

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 8

8: Names, Terms, and Titles of Works

Overview

8.1Chicago’s preference for lowercase
8.2Italics and quotation marks for titles and other terms

Personal Names

General Principles

8.3Personal names—additional resources
8.4Capitalization of personal names
8.5Names with particles
8.6Hyphenated and extended names

Non-English Names in an English Context

8.7French names
8.8German and Portuguese names
8.9Italian names
8.10Dutch names
8.11Spanish names
8.12Russian names
8.13Hungarian names
8.14Arabic names
8.15Chinese names
8.16Japanese names
8.17Korean names
8.18Other Asian names

Titles and Offices

8.19Titles and offices—the general rule
8.20Exceptions to the general rule for titles and offices
8.21Titles used in apposition
8.22Civil titles
8.23Titles of sovereigns and other rulers
8.24Military titles
8.25Quasi-military titles
8.26Religious titles
8.27Corporate and organizational titles
8.28Academic titles
8.29Other academic designations
8.30Descriptive titles
8.31Civic and academic honors
8.32Titles of nobility
8.33Honorifics

Epithets, Kinship Names, and Personifications

8.34Epithets (or nicknames) and bynames
8.35Epithets as names of characters
8.36Kinship names and the like
8.37Personifications

Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Other Groups

8.38Ethnic and national groups and associated adjectives
8.39Compound nationalities
8.40Class
8.41Sexual orientation and gender identity
8.42Generation
8.43Physical characteristics

Names of Places

8.44Names of places—additional resources

Parts of the World

8.45Continents, countries, cities, oceans, and such
8.46Points of the compass
8.47Regions of the world and national regions
8.48Popular place-names or epithets
8.49Urban areas
8.50Real versus metaphorical names

Political Divisions

8.51Political divisions—capitalization
8.52Governmental entities

Topographical Divisions

8.53Mountains, rivers, and the like
8.54Generic terms for geographic entities
8.55Non-English terms for geographic entities

Public Places and Major Structures

8.56Thoroughfares and the like
8.57Buildings and monuments
8.58Rooms, offices, and such
8.59Non-English names for places and structures

Words Derived from Proper Names

8.60When to capitalize words derived from proper names
8.61When to lowercase words derived from proper names

Names of Organizations

Governmental Bodies

8.62Legislative and deliberative bodies
8.63Administrative bodies
8.64Judicial bodies
8.65Government entities that are lowercased

Political and Economic Organizations and Movements

8.66Organizations, parties, alliances, and so forth
8.67Adherents of unofficial political groups and movements

Institutions and Companies

8.68Institutions and companies—capitalization
8.69Corporate names with unusual capitalization

Associations

8.70Associations, unions, and the like

Historical and Cultural Terms

Periods

8.71Numerical designations for periods
8.72Descriptive designations for periods
8.73Traditional period names
8.74Cultural periods

Events

8.75Historical events and programs
8.76Speeches
8.77Meteorological and other natural phenomena
8.78Sporting events

Cultural Movements and Styles

8.79Movements and styles—capitalization

Acts, Treaties, and Government Programs

8.80Formal names of acts, treaties, and so forth
8.81Generic terms for pending legislation

Legal Cases

8.82Legal cases mentioned in text

Awards

8.83Capitalization for names of awards and prizes

Oaths and Pledges

8.84Formal oaths and pledges

Academic Subjects, Courses of Study, and Lecture Series

8.85Academic subjects
8.86Courses of study
8.87Lectures

Calendar and Time Designations

8.88Days of the week, months, and seasons
8.89Holidays
8.90Time and time zones

Religious Names and Terms

Deities and Revered Persons

8.91Deities
8.92Alternative names
8.93Prophets and the like
8.94Platonic ideas
8.95Pronouns referring to religious figures

Religious Groups

8.96Major religions
8.97Denominations, sects, orders, and religious movements
8.98“Church” as institution
8.99Generic versus religious terms
8.100Religious jurisdictions
8.101Places of worship
8.102Councils, synods, and the like

Religious Writings

8.103Scriptures
8.104Other names and versions for bibles
8.105Books of the Bible
8.106Sections of the Bible
8.107Prayers, creeds, and such

Religious Events, Concepts, Services, and Objects

8.108Religious events and concepts
8.109Heaven, hell, and so on
8.110Services and rites
8.111Objects

Military Terms

Forces and Troops

8.112Armies, battalions, and such

Wars, Revolutions, Battles, and Campaigns

8.113Wars and revolutions
8.114Battles and campaigns

Military Awards

8.115Medals and awards

Names of Ships and Other Vehicles

8.116Ships and other named vessels
8.117Other vehicle names
8.118Pronouns referring to vessels

Scientific Terminology

Scientific Names of Plants and Animals

8.119Scientific style—additional resources
8.120Genus and specific epithet
8.121Abbreviation of genus name
8.122Subspecies and varieties
8.123Unspecified species and varieties
8.124Author names
8.125Plant hybrids
8.126Higher divisions
8.127English derivatives

Vernacular Names of Plants and Animals

8.128Plants and animals—additional resources
8.129Domestic animals and horticultural categories
8.130Horticultural cultivars

Genetic Terms

8.131Genetic nomenclature—additional resources
8.132Genes
8.133Enzymes

Geological Terms

8.134Geological terms—additional resources
8.135Formal versus generic geological terms
8.136Stratigraphy

Astronomical Terms

8.137Astronomical terms—additional resources
8.138Celestial bodies
8.139Catalog names for celestial objects
8.140“Earth”
8.141“Sun” and “moon”
8.142Descriptive terms

Medical Terms

8.143Medical terms—additional resources
8.144Diseases, procedures, and such
8.145Infections
8.146Drugs

Physical and Chemical Terms

8.147Physical and chemical terms—additional resources
8.148Laws and theories
8.149Chemical names and symbols
8.150Mass number
8.151Radiations
8.152Metric units

Brand Names and Trademarks

8.153Trademarks
8.154Brand names or trademarks with an initial lowercase letter

Software and Devices

8.155Names for applications, operating systems, and devices

Titles of Works

8.156Treatment of titles in text and notes—overview

Capitalization, Punctuation, and Italics

8.157Capitalization of titles of works—general principles
8.158Principles and examples of sentence-style capitalization
8.159Principles of headline-style capitalization
8.160Examples of headline-style capitalization
8.161Hyphenated compounds in headline-style titles
8.162Titles containing quotations
8.163Italics versus quotation marks for titles
8.164Subtitle capitalization
8.165Permissible changes to titles
8.166Titles in relation to surrounding text
8.167Double titles connected by “or”

Books and Periodicals

8.168Treatment of book and periodical titles
8.169An initial “a,” “an,” or “the” in book titles
8.170An initial “the” in periodical titles
8.171“Magazine” and other descriptive terms
8.172Periodical titles in awards, buildings, and so forth
8.173Italicized terms and titles within titles
8.174Title not interchangeable with subject
8.175Titles of multivolume works
8.176Titles of series and editions

Articles in Periodicals and Parts of a Book

8.177Articles, stories, chapters, and so on
8.178Collected works
8.179Terms like “foreword,” “preface,” and so on
8.180Numbered chapters, parts, and so on

Poems and Plays

8.181Titles of poems
8.182Poems referred to by first line
8.183Titles of plays
8.184Divisions of plays or poems

Fairy Tales and Nursery Rhymes

8.185Titles of folktales, fables, nursery rhymes, and the like

Pamphlets, Reports, and Forms

8.186Titles of pamphlets and reports
8.187Titles of forms

Unpublished Works

8.188Titles of unpublished works

Movies, Television, Radio, and Podcasts

8.189Titles for movies, television, radio, and podcasts

Video Games

8.190Titles of video games

Websites and Blogs

8.191Titles of websites and web pages
8.192Blogs and blog posts

Musical Works

8.193Musical works—additional resources
8.194Operas, songs, and the like
8.195Instrumental works
8.196Opus numbers
8.197Recordings

Works of Art and Exhibitions

8.198Paintings, photographs, statues, and such
8.199Maps
8.200Cartoons
8.201Exhibitions and such