The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 10

10: Abbreviations

Overview

10.1Abbreviations—additional resources
10.2Acronyms, initialisms, contractions
10.3When to use abbreviations
10.4Periods with abbreviations
10.5Abbreviations and spaces
10.6Capitals versus lowercase for acronyms and initialisms
10.7Italic versus roman type for abbreviations
10.8Small versus full-size capitals for acronyms and initialisms
10.9“A,” “an,” or “the” preceding an abbreviation
10.10Abbreviations containing ampersands

Names and Titles

Personal Names, Titles, and Degrees

10.11Abbreviations for personal names
10.12Initials in personal names
10.13Abbreviating titles before names
10.14Abbreviations for civil titles
10.15Abbreviations for military titles
10.16Abbreviations for social titles
10.17Abbreviations for French social titles
10.18Abbreviations for “Reverend” and “Honorable”
10.19Abbreviations for “Junior,” “Senior,” and the like
10.20Abbreviations for the names of saints
10.21Abbreviations for academic degrees
10.22Abbreviations for professional, religious, and other designations

Companies and Other Organizations

10.23Commonly used generic abbreviations for firms and companies
10.24Abbreviations and ampersands in company names
10.25Abbreviations for media companies
10.26Abbreviations for associations and the like

Geographical Terms

10.27Abbreviations for US states and territories
10.28Abbreviations for Canadian provinces and territories
10.29Comma with city plus state abbreviation
10.30Abbreviations for place-names with “Fort,” “Mount,” and “Saint”

Names of Countries

10.31Abbreviating country names
10.32“US” versus “United States”

Addresses

10.33Mailing addresses—postal versus standard abbreviations
10.34Abbreviations for compass points in mailing addresses

Compass Points, Latitude, and Longitude

10.35Abbreviations for compass points
10.36Abbreviations for “latitude” and “longitude”

Designations of Time

10.37Other discussions related to time
10.38Abbreviations for chronological eras
10.39Abbreviations for months
10.40Abbreviations for days of the week
10.41Abbreviations for time of day

Scholarly Abbreviations

10.42Scholarly abbreviations
10.43A few scholarly symbols

Biblical Abbreviations

10.44Biblical abbreviations—an overview
10.45Abbreviations for the Old Testament
10.46Abbreviations for the Apocrypha
10.47Abbreviations for the New Testament
10.48Abbreviations for versions and sections of the Bible

Technology and Science

10.49Miscellaneous technical abbreviations
10.50Statistical abbreviations

The International System of Units

10.51SI units—overview
10.52SI units—form
10.53Plurals for SI units
10.54SI base units
10.55Kilogram versus gram as SI base unit
10.56SI prefixes
10.57Units derived from SI base units
10.58SI units and abbreviations—spacing
10.59Non-SI units accepted for use

Astronomy

10.60Astronomical abbreviations—additional resources
10.61Celestial coordinates
10.62Some other astronomical abbreviations

Chemical Elements

10.63Naming conventions for chemical elements

US Measure

10.64Periods with abbreviations of US measure
10.65Plural forms for abbreviations of US measure
10.66US abbreviations for length, area, and volume
10.67US abbreviations for weight and capacity
10.68US and general abbreviations for time

Business and Commerce

10.69Commercial abbreviations—some examples

Advertisements

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 9

9: Numbers

Overview

9.1Overview and additional resources

Numerals versus Words

General Principles

9.2Chicago’s general rule—zero through one hundred
9.3An alternative rule—zero through nine
9.4Hundreds, thousands, and hundred thousands
9.5Number beginning a sentence
9.6Ordinals
9.7Consistency and flexibility

Large Numbers

9.8Millions, billions, and so forth
9.9Powers of ten
9.10“Mega-,” “giga-,” “tera-,” and so forth
9.11Binary systems
9.12Use of “dex”

Physical Quantities

9.13Physical quantities in general contexts
9.14Simple fractions
9.15Whole numbers plus fractions
9.16Numbers with abbreviations and symbols
9.17Units for repeated quantities

Percentages and Decimal Fractions

9.18Percentages
9.19Decimal fractions and use of the zero

Money

9.20Words versus monetary symbols and numerals
9.21Non-US currencies using the dollar symbol
9.22British currency
9.23Other currencies
9.24Large monetary amounts
9.25Currency with dates

Numbered Divisions in Publications and Other Documents

9.26Page numbers, chapter numbers, and so forth
9.27Volume, issue, and page numbers for periodicals
9.28Numbered divisions in legal instruments

Dates

9.29The year used alone
9.30The year abbreviated
9.31Month and day
9.32Centuries
9.33Decades
9.34Eras
9.35All-numeral dates and other brief forms
9.36ISO style for dates

Time of Day

9.37Numerals versus words for time of day
9.38Noon and midnight
9.39The twenty-four-hour system
9.40ISO style for time of day

Numbers with Proper Names and Titles

9.41Numerals for monarchs, popes, and so forth
9.42Numerals with personal names
9.43Numbers for sequels
9.44Vehicle and vessel numbers
9.45Numbers for successive governments
9.46Numbered political and judicial divisions
9.47Numbered military units
9.48Numbered places of worship
9.49Unions and lodges

Addresses and Thoroughfares

9.50Numbered highways
9.51Numbered streets
9.52Building and apartment numbers

Plurals and Punctuation of Numbers

9.53Plural numbers
9.54Comma between digits
9.55The decimal marker
9.56Space between digits (SI number style)
9.57Telephone numbers
9.58Ratios
9.59Numbered lists and outline style

Inclusive Numbers

9.60The en dash for inclusive numbers
9.61Abbreviating, or condensing, inclusive numbers
9.62Alternative systems for inclusive numbers
9.63Inclusive numbers with commas
9.64Inclusive years

Roman Numerals

9.65Roman numerals—general principles
9.66The advent of subtrahends (back counters)
9.67Chicago’s preference for arabic rather than roman numerals

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 8

8: Names, Terms, and Titles of Works

Overview

8.1Chicago’s preference for lowercase
8.2Italics and quotation marks for titles and other terms

Personal Names

General Principles

8.3Personal names—additional resources
8.4Capitalization of personal names
8.5Names with particles
8.6Hyphenated and extended names

Non-English Names in an English Context

8.7French names
8.8German and Portuguese names
8.9Italian names
8.10Dutch names
8.11Spanish names
8.12Russian names
8.13Hungarian names
8.14Arabic names
8.15Chinese names
8.16Japanese names
8.17Korean names
8.18Other Asian names

Titles and Offices

8.19Titles and offices—the general rule
8.20Exceptions to the general rule for titles and offices
8.21Titles used in apposition
8.22Civil titles
8.23Titles of sovereigns and other rulers
8.24Military titles
8.25Quasi-military titles
8.26Religious titles
8.27Corporate and organizational titles
8.28Academic titles
8.29Other academic designations
8.30Descriptive titles
8.31Civic and academic honors
8.32Titles of nobility
8.33Honorifics

Epithets, Kinship Names, and Personifications

8.34Epithets (or nicknames) and bynames
8.35Epithets as names of characters
8.36Kinship names and the like
8.37Personifications

Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Other Groups

8.38Ethnic and national groups and associated adjectives
8.39Compound nationalities
8.40Class
8.41Sexual orientation and gender identity
8.42Generation
8.43Physical characteristics

Names of Places

8.44Names of places—additional resources

Parts of the World

8.45Continents, countries, cities, oceans, and such
8.46Points of the compass
8.47Regions of the world and national regions
8.48Popular place-names or epithets
8.49Urban areas
8.50Real versus metaphorical names

Political Divisions

8.51Political divisions—capitalization
8.52Governmental entities

Topographical Divisions

8.53Mountains, rivers, and the like
8.54Generic terms for geographic entities
8.55Non-English terms for geographic entities

Public Places and Major Structures

8.56Thoroughfares and the like
8.57Buildings and monuments
8.58Rooms, offices, and such
8.59Non-English names for places and structures

Words Derived from Proper Names

8.60When to capitalize words derived from proper names
8.61When to lowercase words derived from proper names

Names of Organizations

Governmental Bodies

8.62Legislative and deliberative bodies
8.63Administrative bodies
8.64Judicial bodies
8.65Government entities that are lowercased

Political and Economic Organizations and Movements

8.66Organizations, parties, alliances, and so forth
8.67Adherents of unofficial political groups and movements

Institutions and Companies

8.68Institutions and companies—capitalization
8.69Corporate names with unusual capitalization

Associations

8.70Associations, unions, and the like

Historical and Cultural Terms

Periods

8.71Numerical designations for periods
8.72Descriptive designations for periods
8.73Traditional period names
8.74Cultural periods

Events

8.75Historical events and programs
8.76Speeches
8.77Meteorological and other natural phenomena
8.78Sporting events

Cultural Movements and Styles

8.79Movements and styles—capitalization

Acts, Treaties, and Government Programs

8.80Formal names of acts, treaties, and so forth
8.81Generic terms for pending legislation

Legal Cases

8.82Legal cases mentioned in text

Awards

8.83Capitalization for names of awards and prizes

Oaths and Pledges

8.84Formal oaths and pledges

Academic Subjects, Courses of Study, and Lecture Series

8.85Academic subjects
8.86Courses of study
8.87Lectures

Calendar and Time Designations

8.88Days of the week, months, and seasons
8.89Holidays
8.90Time and time zones

Religious Names and Terms

Deities and Revered Persons

8.91Deities
8.92Alternative names
8.93Prophets and the like
8.94Platonic ideas
8.95Pronouns referring to religious figures

Religious Groups

8.96Major religions
8.97Denominations, sects, orders, and religious movements
8.98“Church” as institution
8.99Generic versus religious terms
8.100Religious jurisdictions
8.101Places of worship
8.102Councils, synods, and the like

Religious Writings

8.103Scriptures
8.104Other names and versions for bibles
8.105Books of the Bible
8.106Sections of the Bible
8.107Prayers, creeds, and such

Religious Events, Concepts, Services, and Objects

8.108Religious events and concepts
8.109Heaven, hell, and so on
8.110Services and rites
8.111Objects

Military Terms

Forces and Troops

8.112Armies, battalions, and such

Wars, Revolutions, Battles, and Campaigns

8.113Wars and revolutions
8.114Battles and campaigns

Military Awards

8.115Medals and awards

Names of Ships and Other Vehicles

8.116Ships and other named vessels
8.117Other vehicle names
8.118Pronouns referring to vessels

Scientific Terminology

Scientific Names of Plants and Animals

8.119Scientific style—additional resources
8.120Genus and specific epithet
8.121Abbreviation of genus name
8.122Subspecies and varieties
8.123Unspecified species and varieties
8.124Author names
8.125Plant hybrids
8.126Higher divisions
8.127English derivatives

Vernacular Names of Plants and Animals

8.128Plants and animals—additional resources
8.129Domestic animals and horticultural categories
8.130Horticultural cultivars

Genetic Terms

8.131Genetic nomenclature—additional resources
8.132Genes
8.133Enzymes

Geological Terms

8.134Geological terms—additional resources
8.135Formal versus generic geological terms
8.136Stratigraphy

Astronomical Terms

8.137Astronomical terms—additional resources
8.138Celestial bodies
8.139Catalog names for celestial objects
8.140“Earth”
8.141“Sun” and “moon”
8.142Descriptive terms

Medical Terms

8.143Medical terms—additional resources
8.144Diseases, procedures, and such
8.145Infections
8.146Drugs

Physical and Chemical Terms

8.147Physical and chemical terms—additional resources
8.148Laws and theories
8.149Chemical names and symbols
8.150Mass number
8.151Radiations
8.152Metric units

Brand Names and Trademarks

8.153Trademarks
8.154Brand names or trademarks with an initial lowercase letter

Software and Devices

8.155Names for applications, operating systems, and devices

Titles of Works

8.156Treatment of titles in text and notes—overview

Capitalization, Punctuation, and Italics

8.157Capitalization of titles of works—general principles
8.158Principles and examples of sentence-style capitalization
8.159Principles of headline-style capitalization
8.160Examples of headline-style capitalization
8.161Hyphenated compounds in headline-style titles
8.162Titles containing quotations
8.163Italics versus quotation marks for titles
8.164Subtitle capitalization
8.165Permissible changes to titles
8.166Titles in relation to surrounding text
8.167Double titles connected by “or”

Books and Periodicals

8.168Treatment of book and periodical titles
8.169An initial “a,” “an,” or “the” in book titles
8.170An initial “the” in periodical titles
8.171“Magazine” and other descriptive terms
8.172Periodical titles in awards, buildings, and so forth
8.173Italicized terms and titles within titles
8.174Title not interchangeable with subject
8.175Titles of multivolume works
8.176Titles of series and editions

Articles in Periodicals and Parts of a Book

8.177Articles, stories, chapters, and so on
8.178Collected works
8.179Terms like “foreword,” “preface,” and so on
8.180Numbered chapters, parts, and so on

Poems and Plays

8.181Titles of poems
8.182Poems referred to by first line
8.183Titles of plays
8.184Divisions of plays or poems

Fairy Tales and Nursery Rhymes

8.185Titles of folktales, fables, nursery rhymes, and the like

Pamphlets, Reports, and Forms

8.186Titles of pamphlets and reports
8.187Titles of forms

Unpublished Works

8.188Titles of unpublished works

Movies, Television, Radio, and Podcasts

8.189Titles for movies, television, radio, and podcasts

Video Games

8.190Titles of video games

Websites and Blogs

8.191Titles of websites and web pages
8.192Blogs and blog posts

Musical Works

8.193Musical works—additional resources
8.194Operas, songs, and the like
8.195Instrumental works
8.196Opus numbers
8.197Recordings

Works of Art and Exhibitions

8.198Paintings, photographs, statues, and such
8.199Maps
8.200Cartoons
8.201Exhibitions and such

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 7

7: Spelling, Distinctive Treatment of Words, and Compounds

Overview

7.1Recommended dictionaries
7.2Spellings peculiar to particular disciplines
7.3Non-US spelling
7.4Supplementing the dictionary

Plurals

7.5Standard plural forms
7.6Alternative plural forms
7.7Plurals of compound nouns
7.8Plurals for centuries
7.9Plurals of proper nouns
7.10Plural form for Native American group names
7.11Singular form used for the plural
7.12Plural form of italicized words
7.13Plural form for words in quotation marks
7.14Plurals of noun coinages
7.15Plurals for letters, abbreviations, and numerals

Possessives

The General Rule

7.16Possessive form of most nouns
7.17Possessive of proper nouns, abbreviations, and numbers
7.18Possessive of words and names ending in unpronounced “s”
7.19Possessive of names like “Euripides”

Exceptions to the General Rule

7.20Possessive of nouns plural in form, singular in meaning
7.21“For . . . sake” expressions
7.22An alternative practice for words ending in “s”

Particularities of the Possessive

7.23Joint versus separate possession
7.24Compound possessives
7.25Possessive to mean “of”
7.26Double possessive
7.27Possessive versus attributive forms for groups
7.28Possessive with gerund
7.29Possessive with italicized or quoted terms

Contractions and Interjections

7.30Contractions
7.31Interjections

“A” and “An”

7.32“A” and “an” before “h”
7.33“A” and “an” before abbreviations, symbols, and numerals

Ligatures

7.34When not to use ligatures
7.35When ligatures should be used

Word Division

7.36Dictionary word division
7.37Word divisions that should be avoided
7.38Dividing according to pronunciation
7.39Dividing after a vowel
7.40Dividing compounds, prefixes, and suffixes
7.41Dividing words ending in “ing”
7.42Dividing proper nouns and personal names
7.43Dividing numerals
7.44Dividing numerals with abbreviated units of measure
7.45Division in run-in lists
7.46Dividing URLs and email addresses
7.47Hyphenation and appearance

Italics, Capitals, and Quotation Marks

7.48Setting off proper names and titles of works
7.49Italics and markup

Emphasis

7.50Italics for emphasis
7.51Boldface or underscore for emphasis
7.52Capitals for emphasis

Words from Other Languages

7.53Unfamiliar words and phrases from other languages
7.54Roman for familiar words from other languages
7.55Roman for Latin words and abbreviations

Highlighting Key Terms and Expressions

7.56Italics or boldface for key terms
7.57“Scare quotes”
7.58Mixing single and double quotation marks
7.59“So-called”
7.60Common expressions and figures of speech
7.61Signs and notices
7.62Mottoes

Words as Words and Letters as Letters

7.63Words and phrases used as words
7.64Letters as letters
7.65Scholastic grades
7.66Letters standing for names
7.67Letters as shapes
7.68Names of letters
7.69Rhyme schemes

Music: Some Typographic Conventions

7.70Suggested references for music publishing
7.71Musical pitches
7.72Octaves
7.73Chords
7.74“Major” and “minor”
7.75Dynamics

Computer Terms

7.76Application-specific versus generic usage
7.77Capitalization for keys, menu items, and file formats
7.78Keyboard combinations and shortcuts
7.79Setting off file names and words to be typed or selected
7.80Terms like “web” and “internet”

Compounds and Hyphenation

7.81To hyphenate or not to hyphenate
7.82Compounds defined
7.83The trend toward closed compounds
7.84Hyphens and readability
7.85Compound modifiers before or after a noun
7.86Adverbs ending in “ly”
7.87Multiple hyphens
7.88Suspended hyphens
7.89Hyphenation guide

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 6

6: Punctuation

Overview

6.1The role of punctuation and the scope of this chapter

Punctuation in Relation to Surrounding Text

6.2Punctuation and italics
6.3Punctuation and boldface or color
6.4Punctuation and font—aesthetic considerations
6.5Parentheses and brackets in relation to surrounding text
6.6Quotation marks in relation to surrounding text
6.7Punctuation and space—one space or two?
6.8Punctuation with URLs and email addresses

Punctuation in Relation to Closing Quotation Marks

6.9Periods and commas in relation to closing quotation marks
6.10Other punctuation in relation to closing quotation marks
6.11Single quotation marks next to double quotation marks

Periods

6.12Use of the period
6.13Periods in relation to parentheses and brackets
6.14When to omit a period
6.15Periods in ellipses

Commas

6.16Use of the comma
6.17Commas in pairs
6.18Commas relative to parentheses and brackets

Series and the Serial Comma

6.19Serial commas
6.20Commas with “etc.” and “et al.”
6.21Omitting serial commas before ampersands

Commas with Independent Clauses

6.22Commas with independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions
6.23Commas with compound predicates

Commas with Dependent Clauses

6.24Commas with introductory dependent clauses
6.25Commas with dependent clauses following the main clause
6.26Commas with intervening dependent clauses (two consecutive conjunctions)

Commas with Relative Clauses, Appositives, and Descriptive Phrases

6.27Commas with relative clauses—“that” versus “which”
6.28Commas with appositives
6.29Commas with descriptive phrases

Commas with Participial and Adverbial Phrases

6.30Commas with participial phrases
6.31Commas with adverbial phrases
6.32Commas with a participial or adverbial phrase plus a conjunction

Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases

6.33Commas with introductory phrases
6.34Commas with an introductory “yes,” “no,” or the like
6.35Commas with an introductory “oh” or “ah”

Commas with Two or More Adjectives Preceding a Noun

6.36Commas with coordinate adjectives
6.37Commas with repeated adjectives

Commas with Dates and Addresses

6.38Commas with dates
6.39Commas with addresses

Commas with Quotations and Questions

6.40Commas with quotations
6.41Commas with quoted or italicized titles and expressions
6.42Commas with questions

Commas in Personal and Corporate Names

6.43Commas with “Jr.,” “Sr.,” and the like
6.44Commas with “Inc.,” “Ltd.,” and the like

Commas with Antithetical Elements

6.45Commas with “not” phrases
6.46Commas with “not . . . but,” “not only . . . but also,” and the like
6.47Commas with “the more,” “the less,” and so on

Other Uses of the Comma

6.48Commas with parenthetical elements
6.49Commas with “however,” “therefore,” “indeed,” and the like
6.50Commas with “such as” and “including”
6.51Commas with “that is,” “namely,” “for example,” and the like
6.52Commas with “too” and “either”
6.53Commas with direct address
6.54Commas to indicate elision
6.55Commas between homonyms

Semicolons

6.56Use of the semicolon
6.57Semicolons with “however,” “therefore,” “indeed,” and the like
6.58Semicolons with “that is,” “for example,” “namely,” and the like
6.59Semicolons before a conjunction
6.60Semicolons in a complex series

Colons

6.61Use of the colon
6.62Space after colon
6.63Lowercase or capital letter after a colon
6.64Colons with “as follows” and other introductory phrases
6.65Colons to introduce quotations or questions
6.66Colons in formal communication
6.67Some common misuses of colons

Question Marks

6.68Use of the question mark
6.69Direct and indirect questions
6.70Question marks in relation to surrounding text and punctuation

Exclamation Points

6.71Use of the exclamation point
6.72Exclamation rather than question
6.73Exclamation point as editorial protest or amusement
6.74Exclamation points in relation to surrounding punctuation

Hyphens and Dashes

6.75Hyphens and dashes compared

Hyphens

6.76Hyphens in compound words
6.77Hyphens as separators

En Dashes

6.78En dash as “to”
6.79En dash with an unfinished number range
6.80En dashes with compound adjectives
6.81En dashes with campus locations
6.82En dashes and line breaks
6.83En dash as em dash
6.84En dash as minus sign

Em Dashes

6.85Em dashes instead of commas, parentheses, or colons
6.86Em dash between noun and pronoun
6.87Em dashes for sudden breaks or interruptions
6.88Em dashes with “that is,” “namely,” “for example,” and similar expressions
6.89Em dashes with other punctuation
6.90Em dashes and line breaks
6.91Em dashes in lieu of quotation marks
6.92Em dashes in lists, indexes, and tables

2-Em and 3-Em Dashes

6.932-em dash
6.943-em dash

Parentheses

6.95Use of parentheses
6.96Parentheses for glosses or translations
6.97Parentheses within parentheses
6.98Parentheses with other punctuation

Brackets and Braces

6.99Use of square brackets
6.100Square brackets in translated text
6.101Square brackets for parentheses within parentheses
6.102Square brackets in phonetics
6.103Square brackets with other punctuation
6.104Angle brackets and braces

Slashes

6.105Other names for the slash
6.106Slashes to signify alternatives
6.107Slashes with two-year spans
6.108Slashes with dates
6.109Slashes in abbreviations
6.110Slashes as fraction bars
6.111Slashes to show line breaks in quoted poetry
6.112Slashes in URLs and other paths
6.113Slashes and line breaks

Quotation Marks

6.114Quotation marks relative to other punctuation and text
6.115“Smart” quotation marks

Apostrophes

6.116Use of the apostrophe
6.117“Smart” apostrophes
6.118Apostrophes relative to other punctuation

Spaces

6.119Use of the space
6.120Spaces with different widths
6.121Nonbreaking spaces

Multiple Punctuation Marks

6.122Likely combinations for multiple punctuation marks
6.123Abbreviation-ending periods with other punctuation
6.124Periods with question marks or exclamation points
6.125Commas with question marks or exclamation points
6.126Question mark with exclamation point

Lists and Outline Style

6.127Lists and outlines—general principles
6.128Run-in versus vertical lists
6.129Run-in lists
6.130Vertical lists—capitalization, punctuation, and format
6.131Vertical lists punctuated as a sentence
6.132Vertical lists with multiple levels (outlines)

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 5

5: Grammar and Usage

by Bryan A. Garner

Grammar

Introduction

5.1The field of grammar
5.2Schools of grammatical thought
5.3Parts of speech

Nouns

TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS

5.4Nouns generally
5.5Common nouns
5.6Proper nouns
5.7Mass nouns

PROPERTIES OF NOUNS

5.8Properties of nouns
5.9Noun case
5.10Noun number
5.11Noun gender
5.12Noun person

PLURALS

5.13Plurals generally
5.14Plural form with singular sense
5.15Plural-form proper nouns
5.16Tricky anomalies of the plural

CASE

5.17Function of case
5.18Common case, nominative function
5.19Common case, objective function
5.20Genitive case
5.21The “of”-genitive
5.22Joint and separate genitives

APPOSITIVES

5.23Appositives—definition and use

FUNCTIONAL VARIATIONS

5.24Nouns as adjectives
5.25Nouns as verbs
5.26Adverbial functions

Pronouns

DEFINITION AND USES

5.27Pronouns defined
5.28Antecedents of pronouns
5.29Adjective as antecedent
5.30Pronouns without antecedents

PROPERTIES OF PRONOUNS

5.31Four properties of pronouns
5.32Pronoun number and antecedent
5.33Exceptions regarding pronoun number and antecedent
5.34Pronoun with multiple antecedents
5.35Pronoun case
5.36Pronouns in apposition
5.37Nominative case misused for objective

CLASSES OF PRONOUNS

5.38Seven classes of pronouns

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

5.39Form of personal pronouns
5.40Identification of personal pronouns
5.41Changes in form of personal pronouns
5.42Agreement of personal pronoun with noun
5.43Personal pronouns and gender
5.44Personal pronoun case
5.45Personal pronoun after linking verb
5.46Personal pronoun after “than” or “as–as”
5.47Special uses of personal pronouns
5.48Singular “they”

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

5.49Uses and forms of possessive pronouns
5.50Possessive pronouns versus contractions

REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS

5.51Basic uses of reflexive and intensive pronouns

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

5.52Demonstrative pronouns defined

RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS

5.53Reciprocal pronouns generally

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

5.54Interrogative pronouns defined
5.55Referent of interrogative pronouns

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

5.56Relative pronouns defined
5.57Gender, number, and case with relative pronouns
5.58Positional nuances of relative pronouns
5.59Antecedent of relative pronouns
5.60Remote relative clauses
5.61Omitted antecedent of relative pronoun
5.62Relative pronoun and the antecedent “one”
5.63Genitive forms for relative pronouns
5.64“Whose” and “of which”
5.65Compound relative pronouns
5.66“Who” versus “whom”

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

5.67Indefinite pronouns generally

Adjectives

TYPES OF ADJECTIVES

5.68Adjectives defined
5.69Proper adjectives

ARTICLES AS LIMITING ADJECTIVES

5.70Articles defined
5.71Definite article
5.72Indefinite article
5.73Indefinite article in specific reference
5.74Choosing “a” or “an”
5.75Articles with coordinate nouns
5.76Effect of article on meaning
5.77Omitted article and zero article
5.78Article as pronoun substitute

POSITION OF ADJECTIVES

5.79Basic rules for position of adjectives
5.80Adjective after possessive
5.81Adjective modifying pronoun
5.82Predicate adjective
5.83Date as adjective

DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES

5.84Three degrees of adjectives
5.85Comparative adjectives
5.86Superlative adjectives
5.87Forming comparatives and superlatives
5.88Equal and unequal comparisons
5.89Noncomparable adjectives

SPECIAL TYPES OF ADJECTIVES

5.90Participial adjectives
5.91Coordinate adjectives
5.92Phrasal adjectives
5.93Exceptions for hyphenating phrasal adjectives
5.94Adjectives as nouns
5.95Adjectives as verbs
5.96Other parts of speech functioning as adjectives

Verbs

DEFINITIONS

5.97Verbs generally
5.98Transitive and intransitive verbs
5.99Ergative verbs
5.100Regular and irregular verbs
5.101Linking verbs
5.102Phrasal verbs
5.103Principal and auxiliary verbs
5.104Verb phrases
5.105Contractions

INFINITIVES

5.106Infinitives defined
5.107Uses of the infinitive
5.108Split infinitive
5.109Dangling infinitive

PARTICIPLES AND GERUNDS

5.110Participles generally
5.111Participial phrases
5.112Gerunds
5.113Distinguishing between participles and gerunds
5.114Fused participles
5.115Dangling participles
5.116Dangling gerunds

VOICE, MOOD, TENSE, PERSON, AND NUMBER

5.117Five properties of verbs
5.118Active and passive voice
5.119Progressive conjugation and voice
5.120Verb mood
5.121Indicative mood
5.122Imperative mood
5.123Subjunctive mood
5.124Subjunctive versus indicative mood
5.125Present subjunctive mood
5.126Past subjunctive mood
5.127Past-perfect subjunctive mood
5.128Verb tense
5.129Present tense
5.130Past indicative tense
5.131Future tense
5.132Present-perfect tense
5.133Past-perfect tense
5.134Future-perfect tense
5.135Progressive tenses
5.136Verb person
5.137Verb number
5.138Agreement in person and number
5.139Agreement of indefinite pronouns
5.140Relative pronouns as subjects
5.141False attraction to predicate noun
5.142Misleading connectives—“as well as,” “along with,” “together with,” and the like
5.143Agreement in first and second person

AUXILIARY VERBS

5.144Auxiliary verbs generally
5.145Modal auxiliaries
5.146“Can” and “could”
5.147“May” and “might”
5.148“Must”
5.149“Ought”
5.150“Should”
5.151“Will” and “would”
5.152“Do”
5.153“Have”

“BE”-VERBS

5.154Forms of “be”-verbs
5.155Conjugation of “be”-verbs

Adverbs

DEFINITION AND FORMATION

5.156Adverbs generally
5.157Sentence adverbs
5.158Adverbial suffixes
5.159Adverbs without suffixes

SIMPLE VERSUS COMPOUND ADVERBS

5.160Simple and flat adverbs
5.161Phrasal and compound adverbs

ADVERBIAL DEGREES

5.162Positive adverbs
5.163Comparative adverbs
5.164Superlative adverbs
5.165Irregular adverbs
5.166Noncomparable adverbs

POSITION OF ADVERBS

5.167Placement of adverbs
5.168Adverbs that modify words other than verbs
5.169Adverbs that modify intransitive verbs
5.170Adverbs and linking verbs
5.171Adverb within a verb phrase

Prepositions

DEFINITION AND TYPES

5.172Prepositions generally
5.173Simple and compound prepositions
5.174Phrasal prepositions
5.175Participial prepositions

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

5.176Prepositional phrases generally
5.177Prepositional function
5.178Placement of prepositional phrases
5.179Refinements on placement
5.180Ending a sentence with a preposition
5.181Clashing prepositions
5.182Elliptical prepositional phrases
5.183Pronoun case in prepositional phrase

OTHER PREPOSITIONAL ISSUES

5.184Prepositions and functional variation
5.185Use and misuse of “like”
5.186Use and misuse of “only”

LIMITING PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

5.187Avoiding overuse of prepositions
5.188Cutting prepositional phrases
5.189Cutting unnecessary prepositions
5.190Replacing prepositional phrases with adverbs
5.191Replacing prepositional phrases with genitives
5.192Using active voice to eliminate prepositions

PREPOSITIONAL IDIOMS

5.193Idiomatic uses of prepositions
5.194Shifts in prepositional idiom
5.195List of words and the prepositions construed with them

Conjunctions

5.196Conjunctions defined
5.197Simple versus compound conjunctions
5.198Coordinating conjunctions
5.199Correlative conjunctions
5.200Subordinating conjunctions
5.201Special uses of subordinating conjunctions
5.202Adverbial conjunctions
5.203Beginning a sentence with a conjunction
5.204Beginning a sentence with “however”
5.205Conjunctions and the number of a verb

Interjections

5.206Interjections defined
5.207Use of interjections
5.208Interjections and functional variation
5.209Words that are exclusively interjections

Syntax

5.210Syntax defined
5.211Statements
5.212Questions
5.213Some exceptional types of questions
5.214Directives
5.215Exceptional directives
5.216Exclamations

The Four Traditional Types of Sentence Structures

5.217Simple sentence
5.218Compound sentence
5.219Complex sentence
5.220Compound-complex sentence

English Sentence Patterns

5.221Importance of word order
5.222The basic SVO pattern
5.223All seven syntactic patterns
5.224Variations on syntactic order

Clauses

5.225Clauses
5.226Relative clauses
5.227Appositive clauses
5.228Conditional clauses

Ellipsis

5.229Ellipsis generally

Negation

5.230Negation generally
5.231The word “not”
5.232The word “no”
5.233Using pronouns and adverbs for negation
5.234Using “neither” and “nor”
5.235Negative interrogative and imperative statements
5.236Double negatives
5.237Other forms of negation
5.238“Any” and “some” in negative statements

Expletives

5.239Expletives generally
5.240Expletive “it”
5.241Expletive “there”

Parallel Structure

5.242Parallel structure generally
5.243Prepositions and parallel structure
5.244Paired joining terms and parallel structure
5.245Auxiliary verbs and parallel structure

Cleft Sentences

5.246Cleft sentences defined
5.247Types of cleft sentences
5.248Use of cleft sentences

Word Usage

5.249Grammar versus usage

Glossary of Problematic Words and Phrases

5.250Good usage versus common usage

Bias-Free Language

5.251Maintaining credibility
5.252Gender bias
5.253Other biases
5.254Bias and the editor’s responsibility
5.255Techniques for achieving gender neutrality
5.256Gender-neutral singular pronouns
5.257Problematic gender-specific suffixes
5.258Necessary gender-specific language
5.259Sex-specific labels as adjectives
5.260Avoiding other biased language

The Chicago Manual of Style 17 – 4

4: Rights, Permissions, and Copyright Administration

by William S. Strong

Overview

4.1The scope of this chapter

Copyright Law and the Licensing of Rights

4.2Relevant law
4.3How copyright comes into being
4.4Registration and notice not required
4.5Original expression
4.6Author the original owner

Varieties of Authorship

4.7Individual and joint authors
4.8Collective works

WORKS MADE FOR HIRE

4.9Employer as author
4.10The three categories of work made for hire
4.11Ineligible works
4.12Joint authorship

Rights of the Copyright Owner

4.13Rights of reproduction, distribution, and display
4.14Derivative work and performance rights
4.15Moral rights; integrity of copyright management information
4.16Trademark protection of titles and other elements
4.17Basic versus subsidiary rights
4.18Author retention of subsidiary rights

Copyright and the Public Domain

4.19Copyright duration before 1978
4.20Lengthening of copyright duration in 1978
4.21US government works
4.22Uses of public-domain works

DURATION OF COPYRIGHT FOR WORKS CREATED AFTER 1977

4.23“Life plus seventy”
4.24Works made for hire
4.25Anonymous and pseudonymous works

DURATION OF COPYRIGHT FOR WORKS CREATED BEFORE 1978

4.26Pre-1978 unpublished works
4.27Pre-1978 works published in the United States
4.28New copyright for new editions
4.29Pre-1978 works published outside the United States
4.30Eligibility for restoration

RENEWING COPYRIGHT IN PRE-1978 WORKS

4.31Benefits of renewal
4.32Renewal by the author
4.33Renewal if the author is deceased

Assigning or Licensing Copyright

4.34Subdividing a copyright
4.35Exclusive versus nonexclusive licenses
4.36Goals of the parties to a license
4.37Payment
4.38Termination of transfers and licenses

Copyright Notice

4.39Changes to the rules
4.40Three different regimes

CONTENT OF NOTICE

4.41Three elements of the notice
4.42Name used in the notice
4.43Placement of notice
4.44United States government materials
4.45Notice on derivative works
4.46Correcting mistakes

Deposit and Registration

4.47Deposit requirements
4.48Registration forms and fees
4.49Need for accuracy and candor
4.50Benefits of registration

The Publishing Agreement

4.51Basic rights

New Books

4.52Basic book-contract provisions
4.53Option clauses
4.54Other contracts

Journal Articles

4.55Transfers of rights
4.56Less than full rights
4.57Journal editors

Edited Compilations

4.58Edited books
4.59Symposium proceedings

Theses and Dissertations

4.60Copyright and graduate student work

Alternative Publishing Arrangements

4.61Open-access publishing models
4.62Creative Commons licenses
4.63Self-publishing agreements

Subsidiary Rights and Permissions

Handling Subsidiary Rights

4.64Categories of subsidiary rights
4.65Electronic-rights licensing
4.66Authors’ electronic use of their own works
4.67University licenses
4.68Public-access policies
4.69Economic considerations

Granting Permission

4.70Handling permission requests
4.71The rights database

The Author’s Responsibilities

4.72Author’s copyright warranties
4.73Other warranties
4.74The role of counsel

Obtaining Permissions

4.75General principles for obtaining permissions
4.76Author’s role in obtaining permissions
4.77Interview and photo releases
4.78Author’s own work
4.79Fees and record keeping
4.80Permissions beyond the immediate use
4.81Permissions for unpublished works
4.82The missing copyright owner
4.83Non-copyright restrictions on archives

FAIR USE: QUOTING WITHOUT PERMISSION

4.84Overview of the legal doctrine of fair use
4.85Validity of “rules of thumb”
4.86A few general rules related to fair use
4.87Epigraphs and interior monologues
4.88Fair use of unpublished works
4.89Paraphrasing
4.90Pictorial and graphic materials
4.91Charts, tables, and graphs
4.92Importance of attribution
4.93Unnecessary permissions
4.94Chicago’s fair-use guidelines

Requesting Permission

4.95Information required
4.96Sample permissions letters
4.97Digitizing and automating the permissions process

ILLUSTRATIONS

4.98Rights holders
4.99Stock agencies and image archives
4.100Information required
4.101Fees

ACKNOWLEDGING SOURCES

4.102Credit lines
4.103Acknowledgments sections

FEES

4.104Responsibility for payment
4.105Anthologies